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Sir Muhammad Iqbal

Sir Muhammad Iqbal




Sir Muhammad Iqbal, born on November 9, 1877, in Sialkot, Punjab, in British India (now Pakistan), was a renowned philosopher, poet, and politician in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. He is also known as Allama Iqbal. Iqbal’s early education was in Sialkot where he studied under the guidance of Syed Mir Hassan. He later attended Government College in Lahore, where he completed his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1897 and his Master of Arts degree in 1899.

In 1905, Iqbal traveled to England for higher studies and enrolled at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, from where he obtained a second bachelor's degree. He also qualified as a barrister from Lincoln's Inn. Iqbal subsequently earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree from Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, Germany, with his thesis titled "The Development of Metaphysics in Persia," which he completed under the supervision of Friedrich Hommel.

Iqbal’s career in academia began at Government College Lahore, where he was appointed as a reader in Arabic and later promoted to a professor of philosophy. However, he eventually left academia to practice law, establishing a successful legal practice. His contributions to literature and poetry, however, far surpassed his professional legal career.

Iqbal’s poetry is predominantly in Persian and Urdu, and it revolves around themes of Islamic revivalism, humanism, and the philosophy of self. Some of his most famous works include "Asrar-e-Khudi" (Secrets of the Self), "Rumuz-i-Bekhudi" (The Secrets of Selflessness), and "Bang-i-Dra" (The Call of the Marching Bell). His poetry emphasized the development of the individual and the community, urging Muslims to strive for self-discovery and self-realization.

Politically, Iqbal is best remembered for his vision of an independent state for Muslims in north-western India, which he articulated in his presidential address at the annual session of the All-India Muslim League in 1930. This vision later played a crucial role in the creation of Pakistan. He believed that a separate state was essential for the Muslims of India to preserve their cultural and religious identity.

Iqbal's health deteriorated in his later years, and he passed away on April 21, 1938, in Lahore. He is celebrated as a national poet in Pakistan and his contributions to literature and the ideological foundation of Pakistan are commemorated annually on Iqbal Day, a public holiday in Pakistan.

His works have left a lasting impact on Urdu literature and Persian poetry, and he is regarded as one of the foremost thinkers of the 20th century in the Muslim world. Iqbal’s legacy continues to inspire millions, and he is remembered as one of the pivotal figures in the history of the Indian subcontinent.


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Place of Birth: Sialkot, Pakistan



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Date of Birth: November 9, 1877

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